Thursday, January 26, 2012

A Little Techie History

A friend passed this on to me, and I think it's a fun read - particularly if you don't know anything about the history of radio.


CAR TUNES

Radios are so much a part of the driving experience, it seems like cars have always had them. But they didn’t. Here’s the story.

SUNDOWN
One evening in 1929 two young men named William Lear and Elmer Wavering drove their girlfriends to a lookout point high above the Mississippi River town of Quincy, Illinois, to watch the sunset. It was a romantic night to be sure, but one of the women observed that it would be even nicer if they could listen to music in the car.

Lear and Wavering liked the idea. Both men had tinkered with radios – Lear had served as a radio operator in the U. S. Navy during World War I – and it wasn’t long before they were taking apart a home radio and trying to get it to work in a car. But it wasn’t as easy as it sounds: automobiles have ignition switches, generators, spark plugs, and other electrical equipment that generate noisy static interference, making it nearly impossible to listen to the radio when the engine was running.

SIGNING ON
One by one, Lear and Wavering identified and eliminated each source of electrical interference. When they finally got their radio to work, they took it to a radio convention in Chicago. There they met Paul Galvin, owner of Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. He made a product called a “battery eliminator” a device that allowed battery-powered radios to run on household AC current. But as more homes were wired for electricity, more radio manufacturers made AC-powered radios. Galvin needed a new product to manufacture. When he met Lear and Wavering at the radio convention, he found it. He believed that mass-produced, affordable car radios had the potential to become a huge business.

Lear and Wavering set up shop in Galvin’s factory, and when they perfected their first radio, they installed it in his Studebaker. Then Galvin went to a local banker to apply for a loan. Thinking it might sweeten the deal, he had his men install a radio in the banker’s Packard. Good idea, but it didn’t work – half an hour after the installation, the banker’s Packard caught on fire. (They didn’t get the loan.)

Galvin didn’t give up. He drove his Studebaker nearly 800 miles to Atlantic City to show off the radio at the 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention. Too broke to afford a booth, he parked the car outside the convention hall and cranked up the radio so that passing conventioneers could hear it. That idea worked – he got enough orders to put the radio into production.

WHAT’S IN A NAME
That first production model was called the 5T71. Galvin decided he needed to come up with something a little catchier. In those days many companies in the phonograph and radio businesses used the suffix “ola” for their names – Radiola, Columbiola, and Victrola were three of the biggest. Galvin decided to do the same thing, and since his radio was intended for use in a motor vehicle, he decided to call it the Motorola.

But even with the name change, the radio still had problems:
A: When Motorola went on sale in 1930, it cost about $110 uninstalled, at a time when you could buy a brand-new car for $650, and the country was sliding into the Great Depression. (By that measure, a radio for a new car would cost about $3,000 today.)

B: In 1930 it took two men several days to put in a car radio – the dashboard had to be taken apart so that the receiver and a single speaker could be installed, and the ceiling had to be cut open to install the antenna. These early radios ran on their own batteries, not on the car battery, so holes had to be cut into the floorboard to accommodate them. The installation manual had eight complete diagrams and 28 pages of instructions.

HIT THE ROAD
Selling complicated car radios that cost 20 percent of the price of a brand-new car wouldn’t have been easy in the best of times, let alone during the Great Depression – Galvin lost money in 1930 and struggled for a couple of years after that. But things picked up in 1933 when Ford began offering Motorolas pre-installed at the factory. In 1934 they got another boost when Galvin struck a deal with B. F. Goodrich tire company to sell and install them in its chain of tire stores. By then the price of the radio, installation included, had dropped to $55. The Motorola car radio was off and running. (The name of the company would be officially changed from Galvin Manufacturing to “Motorola” in 1947.)

In the meantime, Galvin continued to develop new uses for car radios. In 1936, the same year that it introduced push-button tuning, it also introduced the Motorola Police Cruiser, a standard car radio that was factory preset to a single frequency to pick up police broadcasts. In 1940 he developed the first handheld two-way radio – the Handie-Talkie – for the U. S. Army.

A lot of the communications technologies that we take for granted today were born in Motorola labs in the years that followed World War II. In 1947 they came out with the first television to sell under $200. In 1956 the company introduced the world’s first pager; in 1969 it supplied the radio and television equipment that was used to televise Neil Armstrong’s first steps on the Moon. In 1973 it invented the world’s first handheld cellular phone. Today Motorola is the second-largest cell phone manufacturer in the world.

And it all started with the car radio.

WHATEVER HAPPENED TO….

The two men who installed the first radio in Paul Galvin’s car, Elmer Wavering and William Lear, ended up taking very different paths in life. Wavering stayed with Motorola. In the 1950’s he helped change the automobile experience again when he developed the first automotive alternator, replacing inefficient and unreliable generators. The invention lead to such luxuries as power windows, power seats, and, eventually, air-conditioning.

Lear also continued inventing. He holds more than 150 patents. Remember eight-track tape players? Lear invented that. But what he’s really famous for are his contributions to the field of aviation. He invented radio direction finders for planes, aided in the invention of the autopilot, designed the first fully automatic aircraft landing system, and in 1963 introduced his most famous invention of all, the Lear Jet; the world’s first mass-produced, affordable business jet. (Not bad for a guy who dropped out of school after the eighth grade.)

Edit 18222 EST:  Dat ole typo generator that puts them in after I hit "Publish"

6 comments:

RegT said...

Great story, SG. Thanks for filing us in on that.

Reminds me of when I got my first transistor radio (a GE in a small, black bakelite box). Reception where I lived wasn't very good, so I took two HO train trestles up onto the roof and strung bare copper wire back and forth and then dropped it down to my bedroom window, where I pushed it into the wax covering the ferrite antenna inside the radio. Improved reception quite a bit. I think that was in '61.

Graybeard said...

Cool idea - I never thought of that, and I was a radio geek when I was 13!

I should do a followup on Major Armstrong, a guy who insiders know, but not enough non-engineers.

Jake (formerly Riposte3) said...

Cool story - I did not know that.

On a side note, most people don't realize it, but Motorola's handheld two-way radios (at least the professional grade ones used by police, fire, and rescue) are still called the Handie-Talkie series - they're just usually referred to as "HT" plus the model number. I used an HT-1000 until we changed our radio systems a couple of years ago (the 1000 model couldn't do digital squelch so it wouldn't work with the new system), and we still have some HT-1250's in service. The voice pager I use for EMS is a Motorola, too.

Graybeard said...

Jake - I don't know it's true, but an ex-radio salesman told me they would sell the Motorola HTs by throwing them at a wall, and demonstrating they still worked.

He also told me police representatives resisted Motorola making the HTs smaller and lightweight, preferring to have it as a back up weapon.

Jake (formerly Riposte3) said...

I could believe both stories. I've seen one fall off the bumper of an ambulance and land right in front of the tire as the truck was leaving for a call. Even after a ~3 foot drop onto concrete and getting run over by an ambulance, it still worked. I don't think the case was even cracked!

RegT said...

We used the Motorola Handie-Talkies at San Diego PD when I worked there, late 70's, early 80's. One of our young parking monitors was ticketing a car in an alley off the Boardwalk in Pacific Beach when the owner took offense. He had been drinking, and since the Mace the kid was issued didn't work when he was attacked, he used his Handie-Talkie on the guy until the battery popped off the bottom (they use to twist on, back then). Worked pretty well, from the results I saw when I arrived at the scene.